Friday, May 22, 2020
Yuri Knorozov was born in 1922 in Kharkiv, Russia. Although YuriÃ¢â¬â¢s parents were Russian intellectuals, he spent a majority of his younger life as a delinquent. Yuri has been described as Ã¢â¬Å"a difficult studentÃ¢â¬ and was even on the boarder of being expelled from education for misbehavior when it suddenly became clear that his inquisitive temperament and extreme accuracy with attention to detail became outstandingly noticeable. In 1940, at the age of 17, Yuri left his home in Kharkiv for one in Moscow. His travel to Moscow eventually got him enrolled in Moscow State University where he studied under the newly created Department of Ethnology. The major of his study was Egyptology, and later he came to specialize in that field. However, his undergrad study was cut short as WWII came to Russia and Yuri was drafted into war in 1943. From 1943 until 1945, Yuri fought for the Red Army of Russia as an artillery spotter (a person in war who is responsible for directing artille ry or mortar fire into enemy lines). In the autumn of 1945, he returned to his studies at Moscow State University in order to complete his courses. At the time, he displayed particular interest in the study of ancient writing systems. During his duration at Moscow State University, he spent a great deal of time devoted to the studying of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. This interest led him to one of his more preferred professors. This professor then helped turn YuriÃ¢â¬â¢s attention from Egyptian Hieroglyphics to Mayan
Saturday, May 9, 2020
The Basic Facts of Bergen County Schools Essay Samples Individual members don't have any authority to act by themselves, but meet as a board in an official session. Please be assured that attendance isn't mandatory and doesn't influence admissions decisions. Some academies conducted group interviews previously, but in the past few years group interviews are rare. Mention it into a staff meeting. Eighth grade students who'd love to get firsthand info about our nine technical programs. Students are entitled to a wide selection of monetary prizes. Only 8th grade students may apply. Sometimes students who didn't study at Masters Prep want to receive our interview training. The writing of a disclaimer can be a tough job for a person who has never written one before, therefore I will supply you with a succinct guide which you could use and follow. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
An overview about nutrient allergic reaction 1-Cows milk allergic reaction can happen in childhood or babyhood Introduction This essay gives an overview about nutrient allergic reaction detainments, inauspicious reactions of nutrient, the other types of nutrient hypersensitivity and the most of import clinical symptoms. Cow milk allergic reaction as an of import type of nutrient allergic reaction, the essay gives an thought about the prevalence of milk allergic reaction, particularly in UK. Besides, It discusses the implicit in mechanisms and the most of import symptoms of the both types of IGE mediated and non IGE mediated nutrient allergic reaction it gives two illustrations of clinical instances one is IGE mediated and the 2nd is non IGE mediated, the appropriate direction of both. We will write a custom essay sample on An overview about food allergy or any similar topic only for you Order Now The definition of nutrient allergic reaction as ( EAACI place paper 2001 ) provinces: Ã¢â¬Å" Adverse reaction to nutrient should be called nutrient hypersensitivity, When immunologic mechanisms have been demonstrated, the appropriate term is nutrient allergic reaction, and if the function of IgE is highlighted the term is IgE-mediated nutrient allergic reaction. All other reactions, antecedently sometimes referred to as Ã¢â¬ food intolerance Ã¢â¬ , should be referred to as no allergic nutrient hypersensitivity.Severe, generalized allergic reactions to nutrient can be classified as anaphylaxis Ã¢â¬ 1-http eaaci.net/v2/resources/position-papers The prevalence of milk allergic reaction or overawe milk allergy worldwide is variable, in UK, for illustration: Ã¢â¬Å" Milk allergic reaction is estimated to impact 2 % of babies and immature kids in the UK population. The prevalence of Cow milk allergic reaction ( CMA ) varies with age, with highest prevalence in early childhood ( 2-6 % ) and diminishing prevalence with increasing age. The incidence in maturity is merely 0.1-0.5 % . Persons with a household history of allergic reaction or familial sensitivity are more susceptible to develop CMA. Of the 8 most prevailing nutrient allergic reactions, cow Ã¢â¬Ës milk allergic reaction is the most common to babies. It normally develops early in babyhood when susceptibleness is highest and shortly after exposure to overawe Ã¢â¬Ës milk baby expression. Onset after 12 months is rare and the hazard of developing CMA is reduced by sole breastfeeding, but this may non forestall the hazard wholly. Ã¢â¬ ( 2 ) . 2-http: //www.milk.co.uk Cow Ã¢â¬Ës milk allergic reaction is different from cow Ã¢â¬Ës milk intolerances such as lactose intolerance and is caused by an inflammatory immune response to milk proteins. CMA is a complex upset and different milk proteins have integrated in the allergic reactions and they have shown to incorporate multiple allergenic antigenic determinants. There is a batch of amongst allergic persons for the peculiar proteins and antigenic determinants to which they react, so, allergic reactions to overawe Ã¢â¬Ës milk are driven by more than one immunological mechanism. It is non a individual disease, but perchance involves different types of immunological mechanisms and by and large classified into IGE -mediated allergy and non-IGE mediated allergic reaction. how cattles milk be IGE mediated or non IGE mediated Cow Ã¢â¬Ës milk allergic reaction ( CM? ) The history of IGE is: Ã¢â¬ËIn 1967, immunoglobulin E or IgE, was discovered by two separate research squads, by hubby and married woman squad, Teruko and Kimshige Ishikaza in the US and Gunnar Johanssen and Hans Bennich at Uppsala University infirmary. The squads could show a clear connexion between allergic symptoms and IgE antibodies. Ã¢â¬Ë 3-Accessed 27/01/08 hypertext transfer protocol: // www.phadia.com/dia_templates/Page_2795.aspx 3-a literature reappraisal 4-report 5-Compare and contrast IGE and not IGE 6-Clinical presentations 7-Immunopathology 8-Diagonistic trials ( History ) will be the first and of import measure, because of full history taking including household, yesteryear and environmental history.Without this we can non get down any probe and which attack can we get down because of probes in a batch of instances can non take to demand cause of allergic reaction. As AAAAI ( 2006 ) Work Group Report provinces Ã¢â¬ History pickings is one of the most of import diagnostic tools in medical specialty. In some instances it can be the most unequivocal one, particularly in the field of allergic reaction Ã¢â¬ -AAAAI Work Group Report: Allergy Diagnosis in Clinical Practice November, 2006 Majamaa ( 1999 ) demonstrated that skin spot testing was the most sensitive diagnostic tool in the kids studied with cow Ã¢â¬Ës milk allergic reaction. They concluded that spot proving would significantly increase the chance of early sensing of cow Ã¢â¬Ës milk allergic reaction and that verification of the diagnosing by the elimination-challenge process is indispensable in patients with negative trial consequences but a clinical intuition of nutrient allergic reaction. RAST trial for lgE antibody to peanut and so utilize Ã¢â¬Ëdecision point Ã¢â¬Ë informations to construe the consequence. If the value obtained is greater or equal to 14 KU/l this is implicative of go oning clinical responsiveness ( 90 % predictive ) and she should go on to avoid peanuts. For a value of 10 KU/l or less I would mention to a specializer Centre nutrient challenge ( ideally double blind placebo controlled ) . If she does non respond so she can re-introduce peanuts into her diet. Decision: Monitorization of specific IgE concentration for milk and casein by agencies of the CAP system in allergic kids to CMPs allows us to foretell, to a high grade of chance, clinical responsiveness. Age factor must be taken into history to measure the specific IgE degrees which are forecasters of tolerance or clinical responsiveness. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004 Jun ; 34 ( 6 ) :866-70. Cow Ã¢â¬Ës milk-specific Ig E degrees as forecasters of clinical responsiveness in the followup of the cow Ã¢â¬Ës milk allergic reaction babies. Garcia-Ara MC, Boyano-Martinez MT, Diaz-Pena JM, Martin-Munoz MF, Martin-Esteban M. 9-Long term forecast All of you have covered the subject of atopic eczema highly good. I would wish to mention you to two first-class reappraisals on the direction of this common disease. The reappraisal in Clinical Knowledge Summaries ( CKS ) outlines the intervention options including an first-class subdivision on therapies that are non beneficial.This reappraisal besides includes an first-class treatment on the function of creams, which everyone recommends despite the fact that good quality grounds for their usage is missing. CKS ( 2007 ) . Eczema Ã¢â¬â Atopic. [ Online ] [ Accessed 2nd April 2008 ] . Available from the World Wide Web: A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cks.library.nhs.uk/eczema_atopic/in_depth/management_issues gt ; Here is an first-class recent guideline from the Ã¢â¬ËPrimary Care Dermatology Society A ; British Association of Dermatologists Ã¢â¬Ë produced in ( 2005 ) , which analyses compactly all facets of atopic eczema.You can happen this at: Primary Care Dermatology Society A ; British Association of Dermatologists. ( 2005 ) Guidelines for the direction of atopic eczema. [ Online ] . [ Accessed on the 2nd April 2008 ] , Available from the World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bad.org.uk/healthcare/guidelines/PCDSBAD-Eczema.pdf A peculiarly of import issue in the direction of atopic eczema is patient instruction and psychological. Remission of peanut allergic reaction can be predicted by low degrees of IgE antibodies to peanut in the first 2 old ages of life or decreasing degrees of IgE sensitisation by the age of 3 old ages. Ã¢â¬ Challenges in controlledsettings should be offered to allow patients, becausethe benefit provided to those who are no longer allergic clearlyoutweighs the hazard of a carefully performed challenge.Several of you justly indicate out the clip devouring nature of a DBPCFC and urge unfastened challenges.This is apprehensible, nevertheless, it is deserving emphasizing the importance of double-blind, placebo-controlled nutrient challenges in the diagnosing of nutrient allergic reactions and there is a really interesting paper from Hourihane et Al ( 2005 ) , which discusses the relevancy of this probe in item and which concludes that there is a hapless correlativity between the badness of reported reactions in the community and the badness of reaction elicited during low-dose DBPCFC with peanut. Hourihane J.O. , Grimshaw, K.E. , Lewis, S.A, , Briggs, R.A, , Trewin, J.B. , King, R.M. , Kilburn, S.A. and Warner, J.O. ( 2005 ) .Does badness of low-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled nutrient challenges reflect badness of allergic reactions to peanut in the community? Clin Exp Allergy. [ Online ] . 35 ( 9 ) , [ Accessed 4th October 2007 ] , pp. 1227-33. Available from World Wide Web: lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi? itool=abstractplus A ; db=pubmed amp ; cmd=Retrieve amp ; dopt=abstractplus A ; list_uids=16164452 gt ; 10 -Link the clinical manifestations to the underlying immunological procedures immunological procedure through the study a-Advice for the parents of the kid if the implicit in disease The WHO recommendations on the Prevention of Allergy and Allergic Asthma ( Dagli et al 2002 ) states that it is estimated that over 20 % of the universe population suffers from IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Asthma has an allergic constituent in more than 50 % of grownups and in at least 80 % of kids. Asthma is estimated by the World Health Organization ( WHO ) to impact about 150 million people worldwide, puting an tremendous strain on wellness resources in many states and is a major cause of hospitalizations for chronic diseases in kids in the western universe. Dagli, E. , Davies, K.H. et Al ( 2002 ) . WHO recommendations on Prevention of Allergy and Allergic Asthma. Based on WHO/WAO meeting on the Prevention of allergic reaction an allergic asthma Geneva [ Online ] . [ Accessed 13th July 2008 ] . Available World Wide Web. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.worldallergy.org/professional/who_paa2003.pdf b-IGE mediated disease c-Non IGE mediated disease d-How differences influence the psychological facets of the patients and kid Ã¢â¬Ës life Atopic dermatitis: Cytrizine is really safe even in immature kids and it is effectual in intervention of atopic dermatitis as Simons ( 1999 provinces: Ã¢â¬Å" The safety of cetirizine has been confirmed in this prospective survey, the largest and longest randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled safety probe of any H ( 1 ) -antagonist of all time conducted in kids and the longest prospective safety survey of any H ( 1 ) -antagonist of all time conducted in any age group St. simons ( 1999 ) Prospective, long-run safety rating of the H1-receptor adversary cetirizine in really immature kids with atopic dermatitis. ETAC Study Group. Early Treatment of the Atopic Child.J Allergy Clin Immunol Aug ; 104 ( 2 Pt 1 ) :433-40. , Histamine receptors H1 are located throughout the organic structure, largely on smooth musculus, vascular endothelial cells, the bosom and CNS. It mediates an increased vascular permeableness at the site of redness induced by histamine. H1 plays an of import function in allergic diseases. An illustration of this is on exposure to allergens in allergic coryza H1 receptors cause oculus, nose, pharynx, and roof of the mouth itchiness, rhinorhea, swelling of the deep sinusoids which leads to blockading of air flow, along with complex systemic turning away physiological reactions such as sneeze and the allergic salutation. ( 1 ) ( 1 ) P. H. howarth ( 2002 ) Ã¢â¬Å" The pick of an H1- antihistamine for the twenty-first Century Ã¢â¬ Clinical and Experimental Allergy reappraisals. 2 ; 18-25. ( online ) Available signifier the universe broad web. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1472-9725.2002.00030.x Leukotriene receptor adversary ( LTRA ) are used for the care intervention of asthma and to alleviate symptoms of seasonal allergic reactions. [ 1 ] 1 ) Wikipedia ( online ) available from the universe broad web accessed the 18/05/08 hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mast_cell_stabilizermast celldegranulation, How to cite An overview about food allergy, Essay examples
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
Metallic was a band that started out in the garage of one of the members when they were In high school. The band went through many changes, tragedies, but found solutions for them and somehow remained playing. They started In 1980 as one of the first, if not the first Black/Metal band. Their popularity decreased in 1 987, and from there they went on to become really popular later on. With Black Sabbath founding heavy metal in the Seventies, Metallic redefined thrash metal in the Eighties. Since erupting on the scene with their debut album, Kill Me All, in 1983,Metallic has been a cutting-edge band the standard by which metals vitality and virtuosity are measure (1). No band has loomed larger, rocked heavier, raged more angrily or pushed the Limits further than Metallic. The group In 1981. Around the core of James Hatfield and Lars Lurch, who both lived in Los Angels, met when Hatfield answered an ad looking for someone to jam with. We will write a custom essay sample on Metallica History or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The pair bonded over their mutual love of metal especially the New Wave of British Heavy Metal. Lurch, a Danish immigrant, turned Hatfield on to this faster, thrash like wave of British heavy teal.The sensibility of that movement feisty, aggressive, anta-fashion and, most of all, Independent in split rubbed off as they assembled an American band that would break free of commercial glam-metal cliches. The name Metallic unambiguously expressed their metal salvage mission, and they became identified with the submerge known as thrash-metal(). In addition to singer/guitarist Hatfield and drummer Lurch, Metallic first lineup included guitarist Dave Musician (wood found Megalith after leaving) and bassist Ron McGovern.Their first release was a even-song tape, No Life Till Leather, that spread their name through heavy-metals rabid tape-trading underground(2). After slogging It out on the L. A. Scene for two years, Metallic relocated to San Francisco. With a revamped lineup that Included bassist Cliff Burton and lead guitarist Kirk Hamlet, they flew to New York to cut their first full-length album. Kill Me All, released in 1983 on the Macgregor label, revalidated the stale domestic metal scene. It was one of heavy-metals most significant debuts, helping to establish the thrash-metal sound in America.It also revealed the groups obsession with themes of death, destruction and the darker realms of the human psyche. (3) Metallic followed Kill Me All with Ride the Lightning (1984) and Master of Puppets (1986). Shortly after the release of Ride the Lightning, Metallic signed to Elektra Records, making them the first American thrash-metal band to land a major-label contract. Ride the Lightning peaked at #100 but spent a year on the charts and sold more than 5 million copies over the next 20 years.Recorded In Copenhagen, Denmark, Master of Puppets proved to be another pinnacle, exalting considerable ambition and intensity(4). Metallic opened for Oozy Osborne on a six-month tour that furthered the albums success and returned their previous releases to the charts as well. A headlining tour of England and Europe followed, ending in tragedy when Metallic tour bus ran off an icy road in Sweden. Bassist Burton was killed instantly(5). Convinced that Burton would have wanted them to do so.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Meddling with Mettle Meddling with Mettle Meddling with Mettle By Maeve Maddox Another of DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s great words of the day, mettle, provoked readersÃ¢â¬â¢ comments that have in turn prompted me to get into the act. ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Comment 1 Mettle can also mean the Ã¢â¬Å"stuff of which a person is made.Ã¢â¬ So if I say IÃ¢â¬â¢m made of mettle, people wonÃ¢â¬â¢t think IÃ¢â¬â¢m a robot (or, more likely, delusional)? I know that Peter was joking, but I just wanted to point out that although the word means Ã¢â¬Å"the stuff of which a person is made,Ã¢â¬ to say Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m made of mettleÃ¢â¬ wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense. Most commonly the word mettle is used with a verb like show, test, or prove: Miami proves its mettle in win over Oklahoma Bilo rugby boys show their mettle NCC cadets test their mettle Other idioms with mettle: to be on your mettle:Ã to be determined to prove that you are good at something, especially in a difficult situation Nancy coach Paul Fischer knows his team must be on their mettle as they seek Study puts stents on their mettle. (in this case an inanimate object is being put on its mettle. Probably not an apt use of the expression.) HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a headline that plays on the same pronunciation (and same original meaning) of mettle and metal: Scrap thefts: Cops on their mettle The adjective mettlesome means Ã¢â¬Å"lively, high-spirited, courageous.Ã¢â¬ . . . M. Epailza, one of our most mettlesome adversaries The word seems to have some specialized meaning for gamers: Copy this simulator to the mettlesome directoryÃ¢â¬ ¨Run the Trainer. Start the mettlesome with this trainer.Ã¢â¬ ¨ I certainly canÃ¢â¬â¢t figure out what Ã¢â¬Å"mettlesomeÃ¢â¬ is supposed to mean in this paragraph on a gaming site: Buy wow characters, you are ensuring you can freely mettlesome without the hornlike slog. Theres no requirement to intend on the mettlesome an distance early than customary so you can conjoin for eve accounts you can go on at your connatural instance and savor the mettlesome to its flooded possible ness the aforementioned way thousands of others do. INWOWGOLD.COM ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Comment 2 How about one who mettles in someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s business to the detriment of the relationship or the business? One meddles in someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s business. The usual sense of meddle these days is Ã¢â¬Å"to interfere,Ã¢â¬ as in these headlines: Building chief tells politicians not to meddle in Olympics Avoid the Temptation to Meddle in Haiti How insurers meddle in your medical care The word meddle comes from French and Latin words meaning Ã¢â¬Å"to mix.Ã¢â¬ The meaning Ã¢â¬Å"to concern oneself,Ã¢â¬ usually in a negative sense, dates from 1415. From 1340-1700 it was used as a euphemism for Ã¢â¬Å"to have sexual intercourse.Ã¢â¬ Shakespeare draws on this meaning in this exchange: Third Servingman: How, sir! do you meddle with my master? Coriolanus: Ay; Ã¢â¬Ëtis an honester service than to meddle with thy mistress. Coriolanus: IV, 5 Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:"Because Of" and "Due To" The Possessive ApostropheApostrophe with Plural Possessive Nouns
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
The Logic of Collective Action by Mancur Olson There are a lot of government policies, like airline bailouts, that from an economic perspective dont make any sense at all. Politicians have an incentive to keep the economy strong as incumbents are reelected at a much higher rate during booms than busts. So why do so many government policies make such little economic sense? The best answer to this question comes from a book that is almost 40 years old: The Logic of Collective Action by Mancur Olson explains why some groups are able to have a larger influence on government policy than others. In this brief outline, the results of The Logic of Collective Action are used to explain economic policy decisions. Any page references come from the 1971 edition. It has a very useful appendix not found in the 1965 edition. You would expect that if a group of people has a common interest that theyll naturally get together and fight for the common goal. Olson states, however, that this is generally not the case: But it is not in fact true that the idea that groups will act in their self-interest follows logically from the premise of rational and self-interested behavior. It does not follow, because all of the individuals in a group would gain if they achieved their group objective, that they would act to achieve that objective, even if they were all rational and self-interested. Indeed unless the number of individuals in a group is quite small, or unless there is coercion or some other special device to make individuals act in their common interest, rational, self-interested individuals will not act to achieve their common or group interests.(pg. 2) We can see why this is if we look at the classic example of perfect competition. Under perfect competition, there is a very large number of producers of an identical good. Since the goods are identical, all firms end up charging the same price, a price that leads to a zero economic profit. If the firms could collude and decide to cut their output and charge a price higher than the one that prevails under perfect competition all firms would make a profit. Although every firm in the industry would gain if they could make such an agreement, Olson explains why this does not happen: Since a uniform price must prevail in such a market, a firm cannot expect a higher price for itself unless all of the other firms in the industry have this higher price. But a firm in a competitive market also has an interest in selling as much as it can, until the cost of producing another unit exceeds the price of that unit. In this there is no common interest; each firms interest is directly opposed to that of every other firm, for the more the firms sell, the lower the price and income for any given firm. In short, while all firms have a common interest in a higher price, they have antagonistic interests where output is concerned.(pg. 9) The logical solution around this problem would be to lobby congress to put in place a price floor, stating that producers of this good cannot charge a price lower than some price X. Another way around the problem would be to have congress pass a law stating that there was a limit to how much each business could produce and that new businesses could not enter the market. Well see on the next page that The Logic of Collective Action explains why this will not work either. The Logic of Collective Action explains why if a group of firms cannot reach a collusive agreement in the marketplace, they will be unable to form a group and lobby the government for help: Consider a hypothetical, competitive industry, and suppose that most of the producers in that industry desire a tariff, a price-support program, or some other government intervention to increase the price for their product. To obtain any such assistance from the government, the producers in this industry will presumably have to organize a lobbying organization... The campaign will take the time of some of the producers in the industry, as well as their money. Just as it was not rational for a particular producer to restrict his output in order that there might be a higher price for the product of his industry, so it would not be rational for him to sacrifice his time and money to support a lobbying organization to obtain government assistance for the industry. In neither case would it be in the interest of the individual producer to assume any of the costs himself. [...] This would be true even if everyone in the industry were absolutely convinced that the proposed program was in their interest.(pg. 11) In both instances, groups will not be formedÃ because the groups cannot exclude people from benefiting if they do not join the cartel or lobbying organization. In a perfect competitive marketplace, the level of production of any one producer has a negligible impact of the market price of that good. A cartel will not be formed because every agent within the cartel has an incentive to drop out of the cartel and produce as much as she possibly can, as her production will not cause the price to drop at all. Similarly, each producer of the good has an incentive not to pay dues to the lobbying organization, as the loss of one dues paying member will not influence the success or failure of that organization. One extra member in a lobbying organization representing a very large group will not determine whether or not that group will get a piece of legislation enacted that will help the industry. Since the benefits of that legislation cannot be limited to those firms in the lobbying group, there is no reason for that firm to join. Olson indicates that this is the norm for very large groups: Migrant farm laborers are a significant group with urgent common interests, and they have no lobby to voice their needs. The white-collar workers are a large group with common interests, but they have no organization to care for their interests. The taxpayers are a vast group with an obvious common interest, but in an important sense they have yet to obtain representation. The consumers are at least as numerous as any other group in the society, but they have no organization to countervail the power of organized monopolistic producers. There are multitudes with an interest in peace, but they have no lobby to match those of the special interests that may on occasion have an interest in war. There are vast numbers who have a common interest in preventing inflation and depression, but they have no organization to express that interest. (pg. 165) In a smaller group, one person makes up a larger percentage of the resources of that group, so the addition or subtraction of a single member to that organization can determine the success of the group. There are also social pressures which work much better on the small than on the large. Olson gives two reasons why large groups are inherently unsuccessful in their attempts to organize: In general, social pressure and social incentives operate only in groups of smaller size, in the groups so small that the members can have face-to-face contact with one another. Though in an oligopolic industry with only a handful of firms there may be strong resentment against the chiseler who cuts prices to increase his own sales at the expense of the group, in a perfectly competitive industry there is usually no such resentment; indeed the man who succeeds in increasing his sales and output in a perfectly competitive industry is usually admired and set up as a good example by his competitors. There are perhaps two reasons for this difference in the attitudes of large and small groups. First, in the large, latent group, each member, by definition, is so small in relation to the total that his actions will not matter much one way or another; so it would seem pointless for one perfect competitor to snub or abuse another for a selfish, antigroup action, because the recalcitrants action would not be decisive in any event. Second, in any large group everyone cannot possibly know everyone else, and the group will ipso facto not be a friendship group; so a person will ordinarily not be affected socially if he fails to make sacrifices on behalf of his groups goals.(pg. 62) Because smaller groups can exert these social (as well as economic) pressures, they are much more able to get around this problem. This leads to the result that smaller groups (or what some would call Special Interest Groups) are able to have policies enacted that hurt the country as a whole. In the sharing of the costs of efforts to achieve a common goal in small groups, there is however a surprising tendency for the exploitation of the great by the small.(pg. 3). Now that we know that smaller groups will generally be more successful than large ones, we understand why the government enacts many of the policies it does. To illustrate how this works, well use a made-up example of such a policy. Its a very drastic over-simplification, but its not that far out. Suppose there are four major airlines in the United States, each of whom is near bankruptcy. The CEO of one of the airlines realizes that they can get out of bankruptcy by lobbying the government for support. He can convince the 3 other airlines to go along with the plan, as they realize that theyll be more successful if they band together and if one of the airlines does not participate a number of lobbying resources will be greatly diminished along with the credibility of their argument. The airlines pool their resources and hire a high-priced lobbying firm along with a handful of unprincipled economists. The airlines explain to the government that without a $400 million dollar package they will not be able to survive. If they do not survive, there will be terrible consequences for the economy, so its in the best interest of the government to give them the money. The congresswoman listening to the argument finds it compelling, but she also recognizes a self-serving argument when she hears one. So shed like to hear from groups opposing the move. However, its obvious that such a group will not form, for the following reason: The $400 million dollars represents around $1.50 for each person living in America. Now obviously many of those individuals do not pay taxes, so well assume that it represents $4 for each tax-paying American (this assumes everyone pays the same amount in taxes which again is an over-simplification). Its obvious to see that its not worth the time and effort for any American to educate themselves about the issue, solicit donations for their cause and lobby to congress if theyd only gain a few dollars. So other than a few academic economists and think tanks, nobody opposes the measure, and it is enacted by congress. By this, we see that a small group is inherently at an advantage against a larger group. Although in total the amount at stake is the same for each group, the individual members of the small group have much more at stake than the individual members of the large group, so they have an incentive to spend more time and energy trying to change government policy. If these transfers just caused one group to gain at the others expense, it wouldnt hurt the economy at all. It wouldnt be any different than someone just handing you $10; youve gained $10 and that person lost $10, and the economy as a whole has the same value it had before. However, it does cause a decline in the economy for two reasons: The cost of lobbying. Lobbying is inherently a non-productive activity for the economy. The resources spent on lobbying are resources that are not being spent on creating wealth, so the economy is poorer as a whole. The money spent on lobbying could have been spent buying a new 747, so the economy as a whole is one 747 poorer.The deadweight loss caused by taxation. In the article The Effect of Taxes on the Economy, its illustrated that higher taxes causes productivity to decline and the economy to be worse off. Here the government was taking $4 from each taxpayer, which is not a significant amount. However, the government enacts hundreds of these policies so in total the sum becomes quite significant. These handouts to small groups cause a decline in economic growth because they change the actions of taxpayers.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Case report - Essay Example One issue facing the Chatime Company is in the product life cycle planning in which the product must go through some stages to enhance its marketability. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s head wants to open more branches to sell their tea in the Asian market. Introducing the brand in the new market will require a lot of market research and promotions to determine the likes of the new customers (Aladwani, 2001). The management is against the idea as they feel that it will be a difficult task to undertake since their market is composed of the Chinese. The product life cycles stages are its development, introduction, growth, maturity, and its decline. Products in the first three stages will require an intensive market research to establish them in the market. The product also requires a lot of development and advertisement to enable the consumers know that they exist in the market (Strategic Management, 2015). Focused leadership is very important in establishing a successful market for the product. Decision-making in this company is an issue owing to the fact that Zhao and the other Franchise are not in agreement as to where to open the new outlet. There are other tea stores such as Gongcha, which will offer stiff competition to Chatime products. Bore they see any substantial benefits from the new outlet, the company will spend a lot of money and other resources to convince their new client that they are offering the best product. Another reason that makes the decision a problem is due to the competition that already exist in the beverage market, which will require strong leadership and creativity to enable them capture as many customers as possible. The challenge is that all the leaders of the company do not support the idea although Zhao has the support of a few of them. The company will therefore, need to focus on product differentiation and leadership to win the market. The product life cycle planning will